Reading Italian Psychoanalysis

Author: Franco Borgogno
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317388135
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Winner of the American Board & Academy of Psychoanalysis Prize for best Edited book published in 2016 Psychoanalysis in Italy is a particularly diverse and vibrant profession, embracing a number of influences and schools of thought, connecting together new thinking, and producing theorists and clinicians of global renown. Reading Italian Psychoanalysis provides a comprehensive guide to the most important Italian psychoanalytic thinking of recent years, including work by major names such as Weiss, E.Gaddini, Matte Blanco, Nissim Momigliano, Canestri, Amati Mehler, and Ferro. It covers the most important theoretical developments and clinical advances, with special emphasis on contemporary topics such as transference, trauma and primitive states of mind where Italian work has been particular influential. In this volume, Franco Borgogno, Alberto Luchetti and Luisa Marino Coe of the Italian Psychoanalytical Society provide an overview of how Italian psychoanalysis has developed from the 1920’s to the present day, tracing its early influences and highlighting contemporary developments. Forty-six seminal and representative papers of psychoanalysts belonging to the two Italian psychoanalytical societies (the Italian Psychoanalytical Society and the Italian Association of Psychoanalysis) have been chosen to illuminate what is special about Italian theoretical and clinical thinking, and what is demonstrative of the specificity of its psychoanalytic discourse. The selected papers are preceded by a first introductory section about the history of psychoanalysis in Italy and followed by a "swift glance at Italian psychoanalysis from abroad". They are grouped into sections which represent the areas particularly explored by Italian psychoanalysis. Each section is accompanied by introductory comments which summarize the main ideas and concepts and also their historical and cultural background, so as to offer to the reader either an orientation and stimulus for the debate and to indicate their connections to other papers included in the present volume and to the international psychoanalytic world. The book is divided into six parts including: History of psychoanalysis in Italy Metapsychology Clinical practice, theory of technique, therapeutic factors The person of the analyst, countertransference and the analytic relationship/field Trauma, psychic pain, mourning and working-through Preverbal, precocious, fusional, primitive states of the mind This volume offers an excellent and detailed "fresco" of Italian psychoanalytic debate, shining a light on thinking that has evolved differently in France, England, North and Latin America. It is an ideal book for beginners and advanced students of clinical theory as well as experienced psychoanalysts wanting to know more about Italian psychoanalytic theory and technique, and how they have developed.

International Dictionary Of Psychoanalysis Alain De Mijolla 2005

Author: Thomson-Gale
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Size: 36.49 MB
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This preface outlines the history and options of an editorial undertaking which, since it took shape gradually over a ten-year period, could naturally not be brought up to date in every detail. I hope that what follows will answer most of the questions of readers taken aback by such and such an omission or such and such an editorial decision. My most important concern, however, is that these remarks should help elicit the indispensable additions and corrections that it is to be hoped will be submitted as time goes on. To participate in the step-by-step construction of an international dictionary of psychoanalysis is a strange adventure, marked not only by enthusiasm but also from time to time by disillusion. The process might well be compared to the education of children, a realistic view of which (sometimes attributed to Freud) asserts that one may be almost certain that one’s hopes will not be fully realized. All the same, the years I spent with the editorial board assigning and patiently gathering in the more than fifteen hundred articles comprising this work, and the subsequent years preparing all this material for publication, have been among the most exciting I have known. One reason was the variety and cordiality of the international connections that the project created; another was the growing awareness of the vigorous multifacetedness of psychoanalysis as a whole, which has been evolving for over a century now within so many different nations, languages and cultures. The charge of dogmatism, too often leveled at psychoanalysis, simply evaporates in face of the heterogeneity apparent to anyone who explores the many ways in which psychoanalytic theory and practice are understood and experienced around the world. Freud’s metapsychological concepts, which he called ‘‘Grundbegriffe’’— a set of foundations few in number but solidly anchored—have constantly demonstrated their usefulness, and they have endured almost unchanged. On the other hand, most Freudian, post-Freudian or even para-Freudian notions are like so many living organisms—ever prone to modification, and tending to be forgotten and (sometimes) resurrected; above all, they are subject to divergent interpretations, reflecting the element of the unforeseeable that is inevitably present for any analyst who refuses to be tied down by rigid theoretical models. Such divergences result too from the lessons of clinical practice and the temporary or permanent changes which that experience imposes on analytic theory; they are the traces of an empirical inquiry that has continued unabated from Freud’s earliest tentative explorations to the confrontation with life as it is lived today. The coexistence in this dictionary of ideas that are oftentimes in contradiction with one another, or that have been developed in different ways from one continent to another, is testimony to their main characteristic: they are provisional conceptual tools, and their ephemeral quality indicates that in psychoanalysis, in one sense at least, everything always remains to be discovered, for the questions asked are forever being posed anew. vii Once the idea of this dictionary had been conceived, based on the principle of a diversity of viewpoints, I proposed to the publishers, Calmann-Le´vy, that an editorial board be formed, to be made up of recognized colleagues belonging to French psychoanalytic schools of differing orientations. I owe a great debt of gratitude to the friends who constituted that small group: Professors Sophie de Mijolla-Mellor, Roger Perron, and Bernard Golse, joined during the first stages by Dr. Jacques Angelergues. They all made vital contributions during those crucial early days. It is in their name, moreover, that I shall now describe our work methods and the route we took. At a very early stage, thanks to a letter announcing our plan, we won the allegiance of a number of distinguished psychoanalysts. They became a kind of support committee, and their prestige lent weight to our approach to potential contributors. Simultaneously, we solicited the participation and counsel of not a few researchers known to us from our years as practitioners of psychoanalysis; we were also able to draw on connections built up over the fifteen-year existence of the International Association for the History of Psychoanalysis (IAHP). In this way a group of ‘‘advisors’’ was assembled, each of whom was asked to assume responsibility for a particular segment of our vast field of operations, to suggest to the editorial committee those concepts or individuals that they felt should absolutely be included as entries in the panoramic vision of the dictionary, and to identify the authors who in their view would be the best fitted to write those articles. Their advice was gratefully received and closely followed. At the same time, we consulted a good number of indexes of existing psychoanalytic works in order to reach a first list of concepts; and the IAHP’s Revue Internationale d’histoire de la psychanalyse (International Review of the History of Psychoanalysis; discontinued in 1992) was a good source in determining which figures or events were the most frequently cited. In 1995 and 1996, at our editorial committee meetings, we debated all the proposed topics thus accumulated, rejecting some and adding others, until we arrived at a list that, truth to tell, was never completely finalized until the very last days before the manuscript was delivered. Our choices were made in a collegial spirit, before each of us was put in charge of a variable number of entries to assign to their respective authors along with general composition and format guidelines intended to impose some measure of uniformity on the immensely varied material to be produced. Since almost a third of the entries commissioned were written in languages other than French, our commitment to an international approach was indeed undeviating, but there is no denying that this dictionary was conceived and realized by psychoanalysts trained and practicing in France. The selection of topics and the content of the entries may well reveal a somewhat ‘‘French’’ cast of mind. How indeed could it be otherwise? But it is my sincere hope that foreign readers will adopt an actively critical attitude in this connection, by suggesting, even contributing, additions. Nothing could be more in tune with our desire for the widest possible opening onto the world at large. On the other hand, of course, by opting for a great diversity of contributors we risked losing a sense of unity, and unity is reassuring. We were quite aware that alert critics were bound to underscore the lacunae, the inadequacies, even the outright contradictions that would appear among entries written, say, by a French author, an English or American analyst, and a colleague from South America—each loyal, moreover, to a particular theoretical orientation. Similarly, the very topics chosen by our advisors must perforce reflect their personal judgments rather than ours. Occasionally we editors proposed additional subjects, but by and large we allowed the advisors’ selection to stand, out of respect for the agreement we had with them; in any event, it would have ill behooved the editorial board or the editor-in-chief to claim a knowledge superior to that of the advisors whom we had chosen as our guides in the matter. PREFACE TO THE FRENCH EDITION viii INTERNATIONAL DI CTIONARY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS It should be noted that despite our request that authors abide by specified space limitations, some were so carried away by their attachment to their assigned topic that they turned in longer contributions than anticipated. In some cases we were obliged to ask for significant cuts, and I should like to thank all contributors concerned for their goodnatured and prompt acquiescence to what were surely painful self-amputations. As for those who found it easier to abide by our space constraints, their contributions were retained unmodified, at the risk of giving readers the mistaken impression, in view of disparities of length, that we meant either to downplay or to highlight some particular concept or individual. Such editorial changes to submitted manuscript as we made were minor, concerned chiefly with formal aspects (style, ordering of paragraphs, standardization of references, etc.). In no case was any kind of censorship exercised by me or by any member of the editorial board, and no important revision was made without first suggesting it to the author concerned. It was out of the question that any article be published in seriously modified form without the writer’s full approval. All articles are signed, and while the editors are responsible for their publication in the context of this dictionary, they belong in the moral and literary senses to their individual authors. With this in mind, each contributor had a contract and was remunerated appropriately, the main purpose being to acknowledge his or her authorship and to keep our collaboration, friendships notwithstanding, within a clearly legal framework. Let me reiterate, as a last point, that this dictionary was created over a period of years. As with all such enterprises, and especially one involving so many contributors sprinkled across the globe, it was bound to be overtaken here and there by events, with no realistic prospect of a complete updating prior to publication.We must hope that such time-related shortcomings will be rectified as future editions appear. Why is a dictionary of psychoanalysis needed? Interestingly, it was rather late on in the history of psychoanalysis that the call for a clearer definition of Freudian terms, whose precision was threatened by their wider and wider currency, was first heard. The teaching offered before the Second World War at the Berlin and later at the Vienna Institute of Psychoanalysis certainly helped show up the need for analysts in training to have to hand a work that, though not a manual, would furnish precise information on a still vigorously evolving body of theory. The fact that Freud lent his support to the idea, coupled no doubt with the anxiety aroused by the defections and misapplications then plaguing the young discipline of psychoanalysis, provided added impetus. Thanks to Richard F. Sterba’s Reminiscences of a Viennese Psychoanalyst (Detroit: Wayne State U. P., 1982), we are acquainted with the circumstances under which the first tentative attempt to compile a dictionary of psychoanalysis was made: In 1931, at the suggestion of A. J. Storfer, I had undertaken the task of writing a psychoanalytic dictionary (Handwo¨rterbuch der Psychoanalyse). Storfer actually began this work with the definition of a few terms beginning with the letter A, but he found the task too time consuming. He asked me to continue the work with him, to which I agreed. It was a project for which my experience in 1925 and 1926, working on the index of the Gesammelte Schriften von Sigmund Freud (Collected Works of Sigmund Freud) was an enormous help. Soon, however, Storfer lost interest in or courage for the enormous project and dropped out of our partnership. As ransom for dissolving the partnership, he gave me the index galleys and typescript pages and all of the eleven volumes of the Gesamtausgabe. I carried on the work alone. The dictionary was supposed to appear gradually in sixteen issues, of which the first was published on the occasion of Freud’s eightieth birthday, 6 May 1936. The preface to the first issue was the facsimile of a letter Freud wrote to me.When I had finished the letter A of the dictionary, I had given a copy to Anna Freud and asked her to submit it for Freud’s scrutiny. After a short while I received this letter from Freud, which I quote here in English translation: ‘‘Your ’dictionary’ gives me the impression of being a valuable aid to learners and of being a fine PREFACE TO THE FRENCH EDITION INT E RNA T I ONA L DI C T I ONA R Y O F PS Y CHO ANA L Y S I S achievement on its own account. The precision and correctness of the individual entries is in fact of commendable excellence. English and French translations of the headings are not indispensable but would add further to the value of the work. I do not overlook the fact that the path from the letter A to the end of the alphabet is a very long one, and that to follow it would mean an enormous burden of work for you. So do not do it unless you feel an internal obligation—only obey a compulsion of that kind and certainly not any external pressure’’ (pp. 99–100; Freud’s letter translated by James Strachey, Standard Edition, Vol. 22, p. 253). In the wake of this first effort, and very soon in the case of North America, there appeared several dictionaries, or lexicons presenting select passages from Freud’s writings, designed to help define psychoanalytic concepts for analysts in training in the institutes; some went further, offering explanations meant to make psychoanalytic theory more accessible to the general reader. Important works falling under this general rubric are the Glossary of Psycho-Analytical Terms published under the editorship of Ernest Jones in 1924, a harbinger of the Standard Edition; the lists generated by the French Commission Linguistique pour le Vocabulaire Pschanalytique in 1923-24; or the New German-English Psycho- Analytical Vocabulary of 1943. It is also well worth citing the Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis edited by Ludwig Eidelberg (New York: Free Press, 1968) and Charles Rycroft’s idiosyncratic Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (London: Nelson, 1968). In France, the initiatives of Daniel Lagache began as early as the 1950s, with the start of a dictionary in installments published in Maryse Choisy’s journal Psyche´, and they culminated in that matchless work tool, the Vocabulaire de la psychanalyse, by Jean Laplanche and Jean-Bertrand Pontalis (Paris: PUF, 1967; translated as The Language of Psycho- Analysis, London: Institute of Psycho-Analysis/Hogarth, 1973). It should be borne in mind, however, that Laplanche and Pontalis’s in-depth study was restricted for the most part to the concepts of psychoanalysis as developed in Freud’s work alone. Later French dictionaries of psychoanalysis were also intentionally circumscribed in one way or another. Pierre Fe´dida’s Dictionnaire abre´ge´, comparatif et critique des notions principales de la psychanalyse (Paris: Larousse, 1974) is a case in point. Some works pointed up the theoretical contributions of Jacques Lacan, such as the Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse edited by Roland Chemama and Bernard Vandermersche (Paris: Larousse, 1993; expanded edition, 1998), or Pierre Kaufmann’s L’Apport freudien (The Freudian Contribution). Kaufmann’s book (Paris: Bordas, 1993) is presented as a psychoanalytic encyclopedia rather than a dictionary, which would presumably be more condensed. In fact, despite the inclusion of a few biographical sketches, very brief, and limited to the main figures in the history of psychoanalysis, the work does not display the diversity and world-wide scope what we have pursued in our own dictionary. Nor does it deal with the principal concepts developed on the basis of practices derived from or collateral to psychoanalysis, such as those of Jungian analytical psychology. Outside France, noteworthy titles—among many others which we have made no attempt to inventory here—include A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought by Robert K. Hinshelwood (London: Free Association Books, 1989), the Bibliographisches Lexicon der Psychoanalyse of Elke Mu¨hlleitner (Tubingen: Diskord, 1992), and Dylan Evans’s Introductory Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis (London: Routledge, 1996), the first restricted to Kleinians, the second to members of the Vienna Society between 1902 and 1938, and the third to the thought of Jacques Lacan. More recently, in the United States, Burness E. Moore and Bernard D. Fine have edited Psychoanalysis: The Major Concepts (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), which elaborates in a distinctly encyclopedic manner on some forty major psychoanalytic themes. The present dictionary differs markedly in fact from all its predecessors in the field, including Elizabeth Roudinesco and Michel Plon’s Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse (Paris: PREFACE TO THE FRENCH EDITION x INTERNATIONAL DI CTIONARY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS Fayard, 1997) or the collected psychoanalytic articles of the French Encyclopaedia Universalis (1997). It is the only work that presents not just some nine hundred concepts or ideas, but also three hundred and sixty biographies of eminent psychoanalysts from around the world, one hundred and seventy of their most noted works, and fifty countries where psychoanalysis has taken root; more than a hundred entries deal with events that have punctuated the history of psychoanalysis in its multifarious lines of development; the institutions that have embodied that development are likewise described in detail, as are the contributions of movements, such as analytical psychology and individual psychology, which stemmed from psychoanalysis. A chronological approach was a guiding principle, and even if it could not be followed in every single entry, our contributors were urged to hew fast to a historical perspective. Only thus can theoretical choices be relativized so that they lose their rigidly fixed character and reveal themselves to be variable according to time and place. By offering a dais to a large number of psychoanalysts of different theoretical and practical persuasions, moreover, we hoped to arrive at a kind of overall picture that was contradictory precisely because it was alive—a candid shot, as it were, of psychoanalysis today, complete with the more or less conflict-prone schools in the context of which it has developed up to now and, it is to be hoped, will continue to evolve in the future. Our intention was to distinguish our dictionary as clearly as possible from works written by a small number of collaborators expressing the point of view of a particular psychoanalytic group or tendency. All the same, it must be understood that we believe unequivocally that psychoanalysis was conceived and has developed in the context of Freudian ideas. The reference to Freud is cardinal in this work, and other theoretical and practical options have a place here only insofar as they have a direct or indirect, temporary or permanent connection with Freud, with Freud’s history, or with the history of the psychoanalytic movement that Freud founded. Psychoanalysis was created as the twentieth century opened, and it developed along with that century, affecting its historical, cultural and moral character by reason of the new way of thinking it represented. The reader should not therefore be surprised to find entries here whose subjects are writers, philosophers—even a literary movement like Surrealism, or such events as the First and Second World Wars. But in such cases we chose not to offer a detailed and biographical or historical account, or a complete account of an individual’s work, but rather to confine ourselves to the subject’s relationship to psychoanalysis. This also makes it possible, however, to trace the ways in which the sound and fury of the world reverberated within psychoanalysis, causing it to change or readapt. It should be remembered, too, that if psychoanalysis has a closer intimacy with the individual’s psychic suffering than do other approaches, this is attributable to the intense personal involvement of those who helped refine its powers; for this reason we paid particular attention to the biography of the pioneers and their chief successors. Readers who find certain biographical details merely anecdotal are urged to bear in mind that no theoretical proposition should be entirely detached from the conscious and unconscious life of its originator, and this goes for Freud as much as for anyone else. We have nevertheless refrained from any hasty or ‘‘wild’’ interpretations of individual figures: nothing could be more radically at odds with the psychoanalytic approach than to pass judgment on a human being in just a few lines. It was indeed never the mission of this dictionary to rank individuals or tendencies. Of course, it is impossible to avoid assuming criteria of worth, but even these cannot claim to exist sub specie aeternitatis; rather, they are mainly reflections—setting aside the enthusiasm of a particular author for his or her subject—of the spirit of the times or of geogra- Fayard, 1997) or the collected psychoanalytic articles of the French Encyclopaedia Universalis (1997). It is the only work that presents not just some nine hundred concepts or ideas, but also three hundred and sixty biographies of eminent psychoanalysts from around the world, one hundred and seventy of their most noted works, and fifty countries where psychoanalysis has taken root; more than a hundred entries deal with events that have punctuated the history of psychoanalysis in its multifarious lines of development; the institutions that have embodied that development are likewise described in detail, as are the contributions of movements, such as analytical psychology and individual psychology, which stemmed from psychoanalysis. A chronological approach was a guiding principle, and even if it could not be followed in every single entry, our contributors were urged to hew fast to a historical perspective. Only thus can theoretical choices be relativized so that they lose their rigidly fixed character and reveal themselves to be variable according to time and place. By offering a dais to a large number of psychoanalysts of different theoretical and practical persuasions, moreover, we hoped to arrive at a kind of overall picture that was contradictory precisely because it was alive—a candid shot, as it were, of psychoanalysis today, complete with the more or less conflict-prone schools in the context of which it has developed up to now and, it is to be hoped, will continue to evolve in the future. Our intention was to distinguish our dictionary as clearly as possible from works written by a small number of collaborators expressing the point of view of a particular psychoanalytic group or tendency. All the same, it must be understood that we believe unequivocally that psychoanalysis was conceived and has developed in the context of Freudian ideas. The reference to Freud is cardinal in this work, and other theoretical and practical options have a place here only insofar as they have a direct or indirect, temporary or permanent connection with Freud, with Freud’s history, or with the history of the psychoanalytic movement that Freud founded. Psychoanalysis was created as the twentieth century opened, and it developed along with that century, affecting its historical, cultural and moral character by reason of the new way of thinking it represented. The reader should not therefore be surprised to find entries here whose subjects are writers, philosophers—even a literary movement like Surrealism, or such events as the First and Second World Wars. But in such cases we chose not to offer a detailed and biographical or historical account, or a complete account of an individual’s work, but rather to confine ourselves to the subject’s relationship to psychoanalysis. This also makes it possible, however, to trace the ways in which the sound and fury of the world reverberated within psychoanalysis, causing it to change or readapt. It should be remembered, too, that if psychoanalysis has a closer intimacy with the individual’s psychic suffering than do other approaches, this is attributable to the intense personal involvement of those who helped refine its powers; for this reason we paid particular attention to the biography of the pioneers and their chief successors. Readers who find certain biographical details merely anecdotal are urged to bear in mind that no theoretical proposition should be entirely detached from the conscious and unconscious life of its originator, and this goes for Freud as much as for anyone else. We have nevertheless refrained from any hasty or ‘‘wild’’ interpretations of individual figures: nothing could be more radically at odds with the psychoanalytic approach than to pass judgment on a human being in just a few lines. It was indeed never the mission of this dictionary to rank individuals or tendencies. Of course, it is impossible to avoid assuming criteria of worth, but even these cannot claim to exist sub specie aeternitatis; rather, they are mainly reflections—setting aside the enthusiasm of a particular author for his or her subject—of the spirit of the times or of geogra- PREFACE TO THE FRENCH EDITION INT E RNA T I ONA L DI C T I ONA R Y O F PS Y CHO ANA L Y S I S phical context. The articles concerned with Jung or Jungian notions were thus assigned to colleagues belonging to the societies of analytical psychology. Matters Adlerian were handled likewise. And topics relating to a Sa´ndor Ferenczi, Melanie Klein, Jacques Lacan or Franc¸oise Dolto were entrusted to writers close to them and their ideas. All is not told— and gossip hounds are likely to be disappointed. In our view, a dictionary such as this is neither holy writ nor pamphlet, but a kind of mirror held up to the time of its writing, bearing all the signs of that time’s fashions and conformities, and addressed to future generations, who with the benefit of hindsight will assuredly be able to read far more between the lines than is discernible to us. With respect to our handling of Freud’s works, we decided that the best way to avoid entanglement in the thickets of editions and translations around the world was to adopt as our basic system of reference the chronological bibliographical tags updated in Ingeborg Meyer-Palmedo and Gerhard Fichtner’s Freud-Bibliographie mitWerkkonkordanz (Frankfurt on the Main: S. Fischer, 1989). Our ‘‘Freud Bibliography’’ lists works of Freud according to this system; in each case the title is given in German and in English, along with a reference where applicable to the GesammelteWerke and to the Standard Edition. It should be noted that we list only those works of Freud that are mentioned in the dictionary. Similarly, the ‘‘General Bibliography’’ is confined to works referred to in the text, and is in no sense intended to replace Alexander Grinstein’s Index of Psychoanalytic Writings (New York: International Universities Press, 1956-75). ‘‘A strange adventure,’’ I wrote at the beginning of this preface, and the reader will perhaps have surmised on the basis of the above description of our modus operandi that the going was not always painless, or without its conflicts and clashes, even its moments of despondency. Yet we were always boosted by encouraging words from friends and colleagues who had got wind of our project in its earliest days and, from near or far, followed its progress throughout. Nor did we ever relinquish the conviction that this dictionary would answer a clear need in the analytic profession and among students or researchers who would find it to be a tool unlike any produced thus far. If there is such a thing as a ‘‘language of psychoanalysis,’’ albeit one considered opaque at times by its critics, we are confident that the present work will show it to be neither a wooden nor a dead language. It has grown up from roots shared by all psychoanalysts, but, as the range of our entries shows, from these common origins have sprung a variety of ‘‘dialects.’’ Each of them—Adlerian, Jungian, Rankian, Ferenczian, Lacanian, or Bionian— has developed in its own way, and inevitably affected the others in the process. Each, to a greater or lesser degree, has weathered conflict, or eclipse and revival—testimony to a salutary psychoanalytic ‘‘heteroglossia,’’ and to the kind of freedom that stimulates thought. The infinite variety of human beings, the diversity of their personal histories and the complexity of a psychological approach that encompasses the dimension of the unconscious can never be forced into the mold of a hypostasized language or submit to the dictates of some Big Brother preparing the ‘‘Newspeak’’ dictionary. You think, I dare say, that our chief job is inventing new words. But not a bit of it! We’re destroying words—scores of them, hundreds of them, every day.We’re cutting the language down to the bone. . . . Don’t you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it. Every concept that can ever be needed will be expressed by exactly one word, with its meaning rigidly defined. . . . Every year fewer and fewer words, and the range of consciousness always a little smaller (George Orwell, 1984. London: Secker andWarburg, 1987 [1949], pp. 53–54, 55). Alea jacta est. This work is now in the hands of its readers. They are invited to handle it as they will. To contribute notes or offer corrections. To convey to us their critical thoughts and to suggest topics they would like to see dealt with in the future. Such active expressions PREFACE TO THE FRENCH EDITION xii INTERNATIONAL DI CTIONARY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS of interest would be the best possible reward for me personally and indeed for all those who have lent their hand over these last years to this portrait of psychoanalysis in the world of today. ALAIN DE MIJOLLA PARIS, JUNE 19, 2001 I am thrilled and honored to be a part of the initiative Thomson Gale (represented by FrankMenchaca as well as the highly-effective and ever-smiling Nathalie Duval) has undertaken to share this Dictionary, whose production I directed in France, with an American audience. This enormous and very difficult work has been successfully completed by a highly-motivated team, including (amongst the many others whom I shall not name): Rachel J. Kain, Rita Runchock, and Patricia Kamoun-Bergwerk; the remarkable American advisors Edward Nersessian and Paul Roazen who reviewed all the texts; Nellie Thompson, whose aid was invaluable at various stages in the project; Matthew von Unwerth, who compiled the ‘‘Further Readings’’ sections, and above all, the translators and revisers who fulfilled the difficult task of rendering texts into English that had for the most part been written by authors from France, Spain, Germany, and Portugal. These translators encountered difficulties raised by more than just the languages in which the authors wrote about these psychoanalytic concepts or biographies they were charged with. Despite a common foundation stemming directly from Freuds ideas, divergent conceptions leading them to be grasped from slightly more theoretical versus clinical viewpoints, depending on where one is standing, were necessarily in evidence—a fact that had to be both respected and, at the same time, made more accessible to American readers. However the sheer number of authors and the scope of their starting-points, as much national as related to different schools of psychoanalysis, nonetheless help us to avoid any sort of monolithic thinking, and beckon the reader to go beyond his or her reading of these dictionary entries with research that deepens their insight. For example, we have avoided repeating the precise definitions of terms cited by specific entries that the dictionary defines elsewhere. We have instead trusted that this dictionary would avail itself from page to page, concept to concept, psychoanalyst to psychoanalyst, to the likings of the systematic research or slightly poetic wanderings that constitute the most effective, or the most enlivened, approaches to getting to know a work such as this. In the Preface to the French edition I offer detailed ‘‘directions for use’’ to readers of this work, so there is no need to revisit that subject. Let me rather use the few lines afforded me here to reiterate the particular importance of this American edition—in my eyes at any rate. It speaks English, like most of the countries in the world today, and English is, of course, an indispensable vector for any thought with claims to universality. Since its humble beginnings in Vienna, psychoanalysis has obviously had a global impact not only in the clinical and therapeutic realms, but also in the arenas of culture and thought. The twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have been marked by ideas whose development has deeply affected the existence of each and every one of us. Our sexual and political lives, our xv morality, our ways of understanding our relationships with others-all bear the unmistakable stamp of Freud’s legacy. By virtue of his family background and his many-sided education and training, Freud ended up at the point of intersection of cultural inflluences out of (and against) which psychoanalysis was gradually forged. This dual process, by no means painless, ensured the new discipline a position and multiple functions, which, as we may now plainly see as we look back over the years, have themselves been subject to continual evolution. A procedure for psychopathological investigation, a method with therapeutic aims, or a conceptual apparatus to account for the workings of the psyche (l esprit) in its external productions as well as its corporeal bonds—out of this ideological and scientific past which Freud conveyed, psychoanalysis has, in turn, modified the conditions of research into the most varied domains of knowledge and none, today, may pretend to be totally beyond its influence. No matter what position pharmacology assumes, (and we must believe in its progress), the encounter with the mentally ill, the listening to their discourse and the decryption of their delusional sayings in order to glean their secret message, like the patient reestablishing vanished relational capacities, will forever remain an affair that takes place between two human beings, from one psychical apparatus to another. The hope that inspired Jung and Bleuler when they first took responsibility for the schizophrenics in the Burgho¨ltzi Asylum was as great as their disappointment. This phenomena repeated itself always and everywhere: Psychoanalysis began by appearing as ‘‘The Solution’’ to the unsolvable problems of mental illness. The example of America, beacon of enthusiasms and of disappointments, is illustrative in this respect—even more spectacularly so in that the all-powerful American Psychoanalytic Association permitted only doctors, psychiatrists for the most part, to join its ranks for the better part of 60 years. Such is not the case today. Yet even though this puncturing of belief-systems might make us think of a destructive tidal wave, this investigatory drive remains—a drive that mobilizes psychoanalysts for their research into new clinical terrain, as they attempt to shed light on and treat ever more diverse and grave pathological conditions. One day, no doubt, new psychopathological conceptions will effect another exploratory synthesis of the psyche and its dysfunctions, thereby authorizing new avenues of approach that will once again appear to us as nothing short of miraculous. But in the meantime, the patient and modest relational exchange, which underpins the psychoanalytic approach to patients in the psychical domain, remains todays most developed adjuvant therapy, whose evergreater efficacy and more precise pinpointing may be looked for in the progress of the neurosciences, neurobiology, genetics or immunology. Although it continues to furnish, as Freud suggested, a ‘‘yield of knowledge’’ for other scientific domains, psychoanalysis gains its creative power and persistent originality from its position on the margins, due to the fact of its being the ‘‘other’’ that cannot be integrated into these disciplines, including literature, history, philosophy, etc. It is the ‘‘other’’ which disrupts through its theoretical a priori of a subversive discourse subjacent to all manifest discourse and which, (as the example of Freud himself proves), can never forget that its own words, as well as its thoughts, are condemned to expressing double-meanings, to contradiction, to interrogation; and which could therefore never be thought of as a finished product, a self-enclosed theory, still less a dogma. The turbulent political events of recent years have refueled the diffusion of psychoanalysis into territories that had previously been closed to it. Therefore both theory and practice will have to rub shoulders with new cultures, languages and other philosophical, religious, medical and scientific traditions. No doubt they will thereby come to brave new storms, know new successes and, fleeting declines. But we must always hope they will be capable of enriching themselves with these various contributions. For only thus is the never-ending PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION xvi INTERNATIONAL DI CTIONARY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS research into the human psyche and its creations embarked upon anew—a quest that constitutes the psychoanalysts true place in the world of yesterday, today and, for an unforeseeable time still, tomorrow. Once again, I am particularly pleased and proud that the American edition of this dictionary is contributing, more so than all those that came before it, to extending and diffusing this perpetual renewal of Freudian thought throughout the world. ALAIN DE MIJOLLA PREFACE research into the human psyche and its creations embarked upon anew—a quest that constitutes the psychoanalysts true place in the world of yesterday, today and, for an unforeseeable time still, tomorrow. Once again, I am particularly pleased and proud that the American edition of this dictionary is contributing, more so than all those that came before it, to extending and diffusing this perpetual renewal of Freudian thought throughout the world. ALAIN DE MIJOLLA

Norbert Elias And Empirical Research

Author: T. Landini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137312149
Size: 67.98 MB
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Norbert Elias has been recognized as one of the key social scientists of the 20th century at least in sociology, political science and history. This book will address Norbert Elias's approach to empirical research, the use of his work in empirical research, and compare him with other theorists.

American Psycho

Author: Bret Easton Ellis
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 9780307756435
Size: 59.43 MB
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The modern classic, the basis of a Broadway musical, and major motion picture from Lion's Gate Films starring Christian Bale, Chloe Sevigny, Jared Leto, and Reese Witherspoon, and directed by Mary Harron. In American Psycho, Bret Easton Ellis imaginatively explores the incomprehensible depths of madness and captures the insanity of violence in our time or any other. Patrick Bateman moves among the young and trendy in 1980s Manhattan. Young, handsome, and well educated, Bateman earns his fortune on Wall Street by day while spending his nights in ways we cannot begin to fathom. Expressing his true self through torture and murder, Bateman prefigures an apocalyptic horror that no society could bear to confront.

Behavioral Humanistic Existential And Psychodynamic Approaches To Couples Counseling

Author: Michael D. Reiter
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317386450
Size: 70.75 MB
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Couples counseling is distinct from individual and family therapy and, while ideas from these other formats may be overlapping, applying theoretical concepts to couples has distinctive challenges. Behavioral, Humanistic-Existential, and Psychodynamic Approaches to Couples Counseling is unique in that it addresses how to conceptualize various theories around a single case. By discussing only one case, the reader is more readily able to compare and contrast the theoretical ideas of each theory, as well as the pragmatics of techniques. Five theories are discussed around four consistent parts: history, theory of problem formation, theory of problem resolution, and case transcript.

The Fundamentals Of Psychoanalytic Technique

Author: R. Horacio Etchegoyen
Publisher: Karnac Books
ISBN: 1780495609
Size: 64.25 MB
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A revised and updated edition of this recent classic, including new material on insight and early development, amongst others. Within each subject, the author presents the theories and observations of each major contributor to the particular topic, from Freud to contemporary thinking, and in the process shows the advantages and disadvantages of the various theoretical positions and orientations.

Psychoanalysis And Art

Author: Elsa Blum
Publisher: International Universities PressInc
ISBN: 9780823651153
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Medieval Tastes

Author: Massimo Montanari
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231539088
Size: 58.68 MB
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In his new history of food, acclaimed historian Massimo Montanari traces the development of medieval tastes—both culinary and cultural—from raw materials to market and captures their reflections in today's food trends. Tying the ingredients of our diet evolution to the growth of human civilization, he immerses readers in the passionate debates and bold inventions that transformed food from a simple staple to a potent factor in health and a symbol of social and ideological standing. Montanari returns to the prestigious Salerno school of medicine, the "mother of all medical schools," to plot the theory of food that took shape in the twelfth century. He reviews the influence of the Near Eastern spice routes, which introduced new flavors and cooking techniques to European kitchens, and reads Europe's earliest cookbooks, which took cues from old Roman practices that valued artifice and mixed flavors. Dishes were largely low-fat, and meats and fish were seasoned with vinegar, citrus juices, and wine. He highlights other dishes, habits, and battles that mirror contemporary culinary identity, including the refinement of pasta, polenta, bread, and other flour-based foods; the transition to more advanced cooking tools and formal dining implements; the controversy over cooking with oil, lard, or butter; dietary regimens; and the consumption and cultural meaning of water and wine. As people became more cognizant of their physicality, individuality, and place in the cosmos, Montanari shows, they adopted a new attitude toward food, investing as much in its pleasure and possibilities as in its acquisition.

Mob Psycho 100

Author: ONE
Publisher: Dark Horse Manga
ISBN: 9781506709888
Size: 70.79 MB
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From the creator of One-Punch Man! A cult is starting to form...around Mob! While Mezato tries to dig up info on the shy but powerful psychic for the school paper, Mob gets tricked into an abduction plot designed to force the Body Building Club into a fight with the delinquents from their rival school. But when the other school's "secret leader" Teru turns out to be a fellow superhuman, it's going to be a massive but one-sided fight...because super or not, Mob refuses to use his ghost-busting powers against a fellow human!